Scientists have more than five hundred differentmethods that can be used in the upbringing of children, so they needed ways to organize them into a certain system that indicates where in what field and for what purpose these methods can be used by the teacher.
In the process of transferring knowledge to preschoolers, the most common classification of methods of upbringing is used, consisting of three groups:
1. Verbal methods - when education is based on verbal forms: conversation, story, explanation, explanation, instruction. These methods are used in the education of preschool children briefly, clearly. The word carries the emotional component. So, the prohibition of action should be colored by the emotion of fear for the child, to be categorical of the prohibition and should not be used often, so as not to become ordinary.
2. Practical methods are games, exercises, training, with the help of which the learned material is consolidated. Children of the senior preschool age become capable of competitive activities, which in education is of great importance, because The goal of upbringing is achieved by the child independently, with minimal support from the adult.
3. Visual methods. When a pattern of behavior is demonstrated by an adult or through an illustration, a film, an analysis of the behavior of another child. The lesson uses pictures, audio recordings, presentations, fragments of cartoons, illustrations for works. The peculiarity of visual work with preschoolers is the avoidance of the display of incorrect behavior. children tend to repeat everything after an adult, not consciously assessing the correctness or wrongness of the act.
This classification of methods of upbringing in childrengardens is used with the priority of using visual methods, because they are the most common in working with younger preschool children due to the fact that their thinking is visual-efficient, and they absorb the demands of the surrounding world only on the basis of display and verbal confirmation. The older children become, the more often the educator applies practical methods, training a skill in children or a positive habit.
Another classification of methods of upbringing,which is used, has a division according to the components of the structure of the person's personality, because for the formation of socially significant behavior, a group of methods must influence all the structures of the individual:
1. Methods of development of consciousness are the basis of a child's world outlook, his intellectual base, knowledge of norms and rules of behavior in society. The richer and more variable this region is, the more opportunities for the child to choose options for socially correct behavior. This group includes all verbal and visual methods from the previous classification.
2. Methods of forming socially-positive behavior of preschoolers is the use of knowledge not only in games and classes, but also their application in practice, repeated repetition in different situations. Initially, this is done under the guidance of an adult person, and then the children train the skill themselves.
3. Methods of stimulation (or the formation of feelings) - this is the impulse to more quickly assimilate the action by influencing the feelings of the child. Therefore, praise, blame, approval is used, situations of success are created. Children react even to a slight disapproval of a significant person: a mother or father, a favorite tutor or grandmother. Forms of educational work are used the most diverse, because stimulation methods are used in combination with methods of developing consciousness and forming behavior. The emotional reaction of parents to the actions of the child is an effective method of education.
This classification of methods of upbringing more oftenall is used in kindergartens, best contributes to the upbringing of preschool children. Emotional sphere of preschool children is unstable, labile, characterized by differences in the mood of children, therefore it is more often recommended to use positive feelings of preschool children, tk. having experienced the pleasure of action once, the kid will want to repeat it again.</ p>