Neutrophils are cells that are part of the normalcomposition of blood, 9-12 microns in size. Neutrophils, like all leukocytes, begin their life in the red bone marrow, developing from a granulocyte germ. By its name, neutrophils are due to a tinctorial feature - they can easily be colored, both with acidic eosin, so with dyes consisting of bases. Neutrophil granules can contain enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, hydrolases, lactoferrin, and some others, through which neutrophils can perform their basic functions.
Functions of neutrophils
Neutrophils, like all leukocytes, protectthe body from foreign agents, providing protection against any kind of infection - bacterial, fungal or viral. Neutrophils play little or no role in antitumor or anthelmintic protection.
In addition, all neutrophils can be phagocyticsmaller particles or cells, after which, as a rule, they die. In tissues in which the inflammatory process begins, neutrophils are increased, and, depending on the complexity of this inflammatory process, live from a few hours to several days. After neutrophils reflect an infectious threat, they die, forming a mass that is known as pus.
Total number of neutrophils in the blood
It must be said that all neutrophils are divided intoyoung - stab and mature - segmented neutrophils. The number of neutrophils circulating in the blood is calculated from the total number of all leukocytes, according to the so-called leukocyte formula, and ranges from 47 to 72% for segment-nucleated, and 1 to 5% for stab neutrophils.
When are neutrophils raised?
Increased neutrophil count in the bloodcalled neutrophilia. Neutrophils are increased, can be in the event that there is a threat of infectious infection, then they begin to actively withdraw from their depot and migrate to infected tissues.
If a clinical blood test shows thatneutrophils are increased, it will say that the body starts any inflammatory process and urgently needs to take measures for its treatment. An increase in the amount of neutrophil content in 2 times indicates a general inflammatory process. If the number of neutrophils is exceeded by 10 or more times, then the development of acute sepsis is most likely. If neutrophils are stabbed, and segmented nuclei are normal, then this can not serve to confirm the disease, because the blood in the blood of stab neutrophils is too small for stating any true diagnosis.
In addition, in the blood, neutrophils can be elevated for physiological reasons, for example, after prolonged physical training.
When neutrophils in the blood are lowered?
Reduction of the total number of neutrophils in the bloodis called neutropenia and may indicate the presence of a viral infection or severe inflammatory diseases in which foreign agents easily defeat neutrophils. In addition, neutrophils in the blood are lowered, are in case of poisoning by some kinds of medicines or strong radiation exposure.
A small or one-time change in the amountneutrophils in the blood can not cause any negative consequences for the body, especially since their quantity in a normal living organism is constantly changing, responding to the physiological needs of the organism. At a one-time or gradual increase in the total content of neutrophils in the blood several times, you need to seek the advice of a specialist who, based on the patient's history, should find out what is the cause.</ p>