Nosology is the science of diseases, thanks towhich becomes possible to achieve the main goal, which sets itself a clinical medicine, namely - to clarify the functional and structural relationships in the disease. Nosology, in particular, includes such sections as etiology and pathogenesis. Consider them.
Etiology is the science of conditions and causesdevelopment of pathologies. Scientific causalism, the idea of how diseases develop, which has now become widespread, is based on materialistic dialectics. It is quite clear that in nature each phenomenon has its own cause, there is a connection between them, in each sequence of events it is necessary to be able to determine the decisive, the main factor. With this it is impossible to argue. However, the disease nosology is a complex science, and not everything in it is as obvious as it might seem at first glance. Based on the above, it can be argued that all etiological factors are divided into predisposing, contributing, as well as causing. Consider them.
Causing factors, as a rule, providespecificity of pathology; they are usually represented by pathogens of various diseases. Contributing conditions include conditions of maintenance, use, feeding, and care. And predisposing are the human condition, its constitutional features, the type of central nervous system, hereditary predisposition.
Scientific causalism teaches that in allindividual cases, with each pathology, it is necessary to seek the main, the main cause of its development, and, having discovered it, find ways to combat not only the disease, but also the possibility of its appearance.
To determine the nature of pathology is not enoughto be aware of its causes, it is also necessary to find out how the pathogen in the human body acts, in other words, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of appearance and progression of the abnormal process. It is very important. Knowing what nosology is, it is easier to understand pathogenesis. These concepts are interrelated. Pathogenesis is the science of the mechanisms of the appearance and progression of the disease, as well as the ways in which the pathological factor spreads through the human body. This teaching is of great importance for medicine.
There are several main mechanisms of appearanceand the progression of pathologies. The most basic - it is neuro-humoral (also called centrogenic) and reflex. In addition, this includes a mechanism of direct action. What are they?
The mechanism is reflexive ifto the effect of the pathogenic factor receptors (in other words, nerve endings) of a certain organ are sensitive. Every medic should know this. The emerging excitation by means of centripetal (in other words, afferent) ways penetrates into the central nervous system. There is an analysis of the data. And then along the centrifugal paths (also called efferent), it rushes to certain organs, whose work is broken. Emerging changes at the first stage are protective, and in the event that they are not enough, an abnormal process begins to develop. It should be noted that nosology is a doctrine in which every physician must understand.
The mechanism is neuro-humoral (otherwisespeaking, centrogenic) if the pathogenic factor was in the blood that carried it to the nerve centers. Further, he begins to exert a certain influence on them, and they send impulses to organs whose work is violated. Naturally, this does not lead to anything good. It must be understood that nosology is a salvation for many sick people. After all, thanks to her, you can prevent some diseases today.
The mechanism is immediate ifviolations occur at the site of the disease-causing factor. This frostbite, burns, alkali, and also acids. The disease-causing factors that penetrate the human body are spread by touch and anatomical continuation, together with secretions, lymph and blood, a retrograde method, and also along the nerve trunks.
Six years ago in our country, a program called "Seven Nosologies" was launched.
Its essence lies in the fact that medicaldrugs needed to treat people with several rare pathologies that require costly therapy are now bought for money from the federal budget. Thus, patients receive medicines for free.
To date, the program includes seven rare pathologies:
- Glucosylceramide lipidosis;
- multiple sclerosis;
- myeloid leukemia;
- as well as patients who survived organ transplant and who need immunosuppressors.
Now you understand that nosology is not an easy science, and you should seriously study it. Also you have become aware of basic information about the program "Seven Nosologies."</ p>