Tick borreliosis is caused by spirochaetes andtransmitted by ticks. This infectious disease is characterized by a chronic course. It often affects the skin, the musculoskeletal system, the nervous system and the heart. For the first time tick-borne borreliosis is registered in the USA (Lyme), therefore the disease is sometimes called Lyme disease.
Tick borreliosis: etiology.
The disease is caused by spirochetes belonging tothe genus of Borrelia. The intermediate host are ixodid mites. The reservoir of borreliosis is wild animals and rodents. Quite often there is a mixed infection with tick-borne encephalitis and borreliosis.
Tick borreliosis: symptoms.
The disease is recorded on all continents,except Antarctica. The endemic areas of Russia include the Leningrad, Kaliningrad, Tyumen, Yaroslavl, Perm, Tver, Kostroma regions, as well as the Far Eastern, Ural and West Siberian regions. It should be recalled that on the territory of the Leningrad Region tick borreliosis is carried by taiga and European forest mites. Contagion vectors can range from 5 to 90%. The incubation period of the disease is approximately 14 days. An early clinical sign of the disease is the redness (hyperemia) of the skin at the site of the bite by an ixodic tick. Hyperemia of the skin becomes worse, the reddened stain can measure up to 10 centimeters in diameter. There were recorded cases when this spot reached 60 cm or more. Over time, the center of the spot turns pale and acquires a cyanotic (cyanotic) shade, forming a circular shape. At the site of the bite, a crust is formed, and then a scar. This stain persists for 14-20 days, after which it disappears. After 30-45 days after the bite, clinical symptoms of internal organ damage are observed.
Tick borreliosis: pathogenesis.
When an infected tick is bitten,infection with borreliosis. Borrelia with saliva enter the skin, after which they multiply intensively for several days, infect other parts of the dermis and internal organs (liver, heart, joints, brain). The causative agent for a long time can be localized in the human body causing a chronic course of the disease.
Tick borreliosis: diagnosis.
To confirm the diagnosis (Lyme disease)it is necessary to make a blood test. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease is complicated by the fact that when collecting anamnestic data, the patient does not indicate the fact of bite. Therefore, the patient does not receive appropriate treatment, which can lead to disability. Serological tests are performed using an enzyme immunoassay. With neurological manifestations, the cerebrospinal fluid is also examined.
Tick-borne borreliosis: treatment.
For the treatment of borreliosis, etiotropic andpathogenetic therapy. At the initial stages of the development of the disease, antibiotic therapy is prescribed. Intravenous administration of antibiotics (tetracycline series) at maximum doses provides a sufficient concentration of them in the cerebrospinal fluid. The use of antibiotics at the initial stage prevents the development of cardiac, arthralgic and neurological complications. When skin manifestation of borreliosis with tetracycline is prescribed doxycycline for a month. When the nervous system is affected, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cefazolin, roxithromycin, cephalosporin, azithromycin, erythromycin are prescribed. When the joints are damaged, a good therapeutic effect is obtained with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxin, chlorotazole, indomethacin, plakvinil), analgesics and physiotherapy.</ p>