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Bronchial asthma pathogenesis and etiology

Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease and,as a rule, episodic. This is the most severe form of allergy. Chronic inflammation leads to increased sensitivity of the bronchi to various environmental influences.

The disease can have hereditary orthe acquired form. We will consider bronchial asthma - pathogenesis, a clinic, treatment of this ailment. All this is very important to know and to study well if there is a person in the family suffering from this pathology.

Basic concepts

This is a serious pathology that preventsNormal breathing due to narrowed paths leading to the lungs. Attacks can pass independently, but in a heavier farm only medicines help. What is the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma? The scheme of the disease is such that due to excess of mucus produced, spasms and inflammatory swelling thicken the walls of the bronchus, and the gap between them narrows. As a result, air is not supplied in sufficient quantity, which leads to systematic attacks of suffocation, coughing, wheezing and other bright symptoms of asthma.

bronchial asthma pathogenesis

From this affliction suffers, according to statistics, 5%European population, a predominantly young age. As a rule, these are children under 10 years old. Despite the fact that medicine is constantly exploring this pathology associated with bronchial hyperactivity, the reasons for its development, treatment and prevention are not fully understood. The etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma often pose scientists at a dead end. But how does this disease develop?

Pathogenesis of bronchial asthma

Pathogenesis - the mechanism of disease development - consists of 2 stages:

  • Immunological. When an exciting allergen enters the immune system, mucosal inflammation occurs.
  • Pathophysiological. A natural bronchial reaction to the inflammatory process that occurs in the body.

The mechanism of the appearance of bronchospasm builds upas follows: a long time on the mucosa of the bronchial tree is affected by the stimulus. Mucous swelling, and there is a hypersecretion, which causes seizures. What happens to the body in the development of bronchial asthma?

Pathogenesis is accompanied by the following violations:

  • Hyperestrogenemia, leading to an increaseactivity of α-adrenergic receptors and a decrease in the operability of β-adrenergic receptors. With the external action of the allergen simultaneously with these processes, bronchospasm develops.
  • Glucocorticosteroid insufficiency increases the level of histamine and bronchial tone, which become sensitive to irritants.
  • Hyperthyroidism. The disease worsens and develops rapidly in people who have increased the amount of thyroid hormones.
    pathogenesis of bronchial asthma

The pathogenesis of bronchial asthma is defined inresult of clinical and pathological examination. Changes occurring in the body can be both internal and external. External factors affecting the development of pathology:

  • psychoemotional condition;
  • stress;
  • physical exercise;
  • exposure to allergens;
  • the influence of chemical stimuli;
  • an unfavorable climate.

Internal factors:

  • disorders in the endocrine system;
  • weak immunity;
  • bronchial hyperactivity.

Home dust is one of the main provocateurs that leads to asthma. It contains many microorganisms, which are strong allergens.

Severity of Attacks

Despite the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma andthe course of the disease, you must immediately take action. The attack can be brief or last for several hours. After it, the patient becomes much better, and it seems that he is completely cured.

It all depends on the phase of the disease. A person may be slightly obstructed by the airway. A severe stage can manifest itself within a few days and take a few weeks. This form is called asthmatic status. Such outbreaks are very dangerous and can provoke a fatal outcome.

etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma

For each form of pathogenesis, there arepathogenetic mechanisms. Of the general, we can distinguish the changes in the reactivity and sensitivity of the bronchi, evaluated in response to a physical or pharmacological effect.

When the cause is heredity

A person with a genetic predisposition to asthma can never feel its manifestation, or it will make itself felt at any age:

  • 50% - children's age (up to 10 years);
  • 30% - up to 40 years;
  • 20% after 50 years.

Hereditary factor is the fundamentalthe cause of the disease. If the parents suffered from asthma, then the probability that the disease will be transmitted to the child is 30%. However, pathology itself can not be manifested, it must be provoked by something.

That is, with a combination of internal, external factors and the fact of hereditary predisposition, the risk of triggering the mechanism of infectious inflammation increases several fold.

The provoking factors of asthma

The respiratory ways of people suffering from bronchial asthma are extremely irritable and sensitive. The provocative substances that cause seizures are called triggers in another way:

  • weather;
  • ecological situation;
  • pollen, mold, mushrooms;
  • emotional stimuli;
  • excessive physical activity;
  • smoking, tobacco smoke;
  • medicines;
  • food products;
  • home ticks;
  • animals.

Each person undergoes different pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, seizures can be caused by one or more stimuli.

External influence

In most cases, asthma is several factors that act simultaneously on the body. They are divided into several groups:

  • infection;
  • allergens;
  • mechanical and chemical stimuli;
  • meteorological factors;
  • medicines.
    the bronchial asthma etiology pathogenesis of the clinic

To allergens include house dust, pollenplants, food, medicine, insects, animals. Infectious pathogens: bacteria, viruses, fungus. Mechanical and chemical irritants: cotton or silicate dust, smoke, vapors of alkalis and acids. Meteorological influences include any changes in weather and atmospheric pressure.

To provoke asthma can b-adrenoblockers, used to combat hypertension, painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs. With the course of the disease, triggers can change.

When the problem is from within

Bronchial asthma can develop due topersistent disruption of immunity, endocrine system, metabolism, increased work of receptors in the bronchial mucosa, malfunctions in the nervous system. All these signs are a consequence of the wrong way of life, the transferred infectious disease, living in a bad ecological situation.

Etiology of bronchial asthma

Etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthmalies in the fact that the disease is heterogeneous and is associated with clinical and epidemiological causes that cause acute episodes. However, it is important to note that the difference is often artificial and affects the classification subcategory.

Concerning the molecular level, the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma is of two types: allergic and peculiar. The first, as a rule, is associated with the family history of such diseases:

  • eczema;
  • rhinitis;
  • reactions of erythematous papules;
  • hives.
    bronchial asthma pathogenesis clinic treatment

The initial manifestation of the pathology may be accompanied by symptoms resembling a common cold, but after a few days there is shortness of breath, whistles, wheezing and other signs of bronchial asthma.

Symptomatology

Depending on the degree of severity and form,different symptoms of bronchial asthma. Etiology, pathogenesis, classification are formed by such pronounced signs as a small cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pains or suffocation attacks. With the latter symptoms, a doctor's examination is a necessary and vitally important procedure.

When the survey was completed, and delivereddiagnosis, usually prescribed by the inhaler. But in those cases, when its use is performed more often than it was prescribed, it is necessary to immediately seek help from a doctor in charge.

If the symptoms do not pass within 1-2 days, and the inhaler does not help, hospitalization will be required. In the period of attacks of suffocation and difficult speech, an ambulance is called.

Concomitant symptoms

At the time of exacerbation, the patient appearsincreased reaction to sharp smells and temperature changes. This indicates inflammatory processes and the activation of drug therapy. One of the brightest signs is the improvement of the condition from taking antihistamines ("Zirtek", "Tsetrin", etc.) and, accordingly, after inhalation. Additional symptoms:

  • dizziness, headache;
  • general malaise and weakness;
  • tachycardia (heart palpitations);
  • blueing of the skin;
  • signs of emphysema.

Traditional therapy can not remove asthmatic status, this attack is accompanied by prolonged suffocation and impaired consciousness. This condition can lead to death.

pathogenesis of bronchial asthma

Asthmatic reaction with respect to speedbronchial response to an allergen may be early or late. In the first case, seizures begin after 1-2 minutes and end after 20 minutes. The total duration of asthma can last up to 2 hours. The late stage causes bronchial hyperactivity after 4-6 hours, the culmination occurs after 8 hours. The duration of the attack is 12 hours.

Complications:

  • emphysematous disorders in the lungs;
  • acute respiratory failure;
  • when air enters the pleural cavity, pneumothorax develops.

There are several forms of asthma on etiology:

  • Exogenous (provoked by an allergen);
  • endogenous (provoked by stress and infection);
  • mixed genesis.

The most common is bronchial asthma of the atopic form, which arises from the genetic predisposition to the occurrence of allergic reactions.

What is important to know

The first thing to do is turn todoctor, undergo a complete examination, establish an accurate diagnosis and get recommendations for treatment. Only the doctor knows what kind of disease such as bronchial asthma, etiology, pathogenesis, clinic, treatment. It is important that the patient himself and all his loved ones are always ready for new attacks and know how to help.

To provide effective assistance, one must haveexhaustive information about all the symptoms, stages and forms of the disease. It is important to know what the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma is. Briefly, you can advise the following: a clear treatment plan should be drawn up with instructions that explain what to do in case of acute attacks. No recommendation, advice or appointment of a doctor can be ignored, it can cost the patient's life. Medicines are taken strictly according to prescription, exclusively at the indicated doses and at certain times.

pathogenesis of bronchial asthma

At hand, wherever the patient is, he andhis loved ones should always have the necessary medicines, drugs that provide first aid and an inhaler. It is also important to keep a diary of symptoms, fix their change, and identify irritants that affect a person's condition. It is important not to panic during the first bouts, but to clearly carry out actions according to the plan.

Physicians are still being carefully studiedbronchial asthma. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinic of the disease make it possible to put the correct diagnosis and to appoint competent treatment. As a rule, the doctor prescribes inhalers, aerosols, and in the presence of infection, antibiotics are prescribed. As a preventive measure, the most important recommendation remains the elimination of factors that provoke seizures. To do this, you need to monitor the cleanliness of the house, avoid environmentally polluted places, quit smoking and take all prescribed medications.

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