Sometimes in the human body without any tangible reasonsthere is an ailment that is associated with uncontrolled self-reproduction of cells. One of the types of such ailments is the melanoma of the nail. The initial stage of the disease is not very noticeable and may resemble other destructive processes. Therefore, patients seek help at later stages.
In simple terms, melanoma of the nailis a type of cancer, which is characterized by aggressive development and a specific clinical picture. If you take all the cancer, then about 4 percent accounted for precisely this disease.
Medical statistics show that inIn most cases, the thumb on the right hand is affected. The preliminary stage of the oncological process proceeds secretly. On external parameters, it is not always possible to identify a cancerous formation.
Most often the melanoma of the nail is stainedepithelial pigment. In this case, to establish the correct diagnosis becomes much easier even with a preliminary examination with a doctor. About 20 percent of malignant tumors do not have this color, which complicates the diagnosis.
Various factors can lead to the degeneration of the cells of the nail plate:
These risk factors can giveoncological process. As a result, melanoma of the nail is formed. Photo with its development in later stages can not be confused with other diseases. By the appearance of the nail plate, it becomes immediately clear that there is a cancerous formation.
With cancer, attention should be paid to a number of important points. Although the disease is easily confused with a common fungal infection, there are weighty signs that allow you to establish a diagnosis.
Usually draw attention to the following symptoms of nail melanoma:
The presence of two or more signs allows the doctorsuggest that the patient formed a melanoma of the nail of the leg or arm. Sometimes there are mistakes, for example, a specialist who examines the patient, confuses this ailment with panaricium, which belongs to the category of infectious diseases.
Melanomas can be of different types. The main types of such tumors are reflected in the table:
Types of tumor of the nail plate
Has received the greatest distribution. With this development of events, changes in the cell are more likely to affect the external skin. Deep layers are affected only if there is no timely treatment.
For all characteristics, the tumor is similar to the one mentioned above. It develops, affecting the same layers of skin. Its peculiarity consists in uneven pigmentation.
It begins to appear on the surface layers of the skin, but gradually grows inside. The nail becomes a dark spot. Most often observed in black people.
It is characterized by deep germination in the epithelial tissue. The tumor is characterized by the most aggressive nature of the lesion.
In the first two stages, the melanoma under the nail is quite limited in size. Expanding cells do not yet affect the deep tissues and internal organs. The risk of spread is not too high.
In total, there are four main stages of the disease, the main assessment criterion of which is the thickness of education:
As for pain, they canappear already in the second stage, when the thickness of the build-up begins to reach 2-4 mm. However, this does not always happen. In some cases, pain does not occur until the very last stage, until the bone tissue of the finger begins to be completely affected.
It is important at the right time to pinpoint whatthere was melanoma of the nail. The initial phase of the development of the disease is treated much easier than the late one. To identify a dangerous disease, special diagnostic measures are used:
The above options allow you to obtain certain information, but they are usually conducted in a complex. After studying the results, a concrete conclusion is made.
Before proceeding to the treatment of nail melanoma,determine the presence of metastases. At the initial stages, the patient is removed by the surgical method. If necessary, healthy tissues located around the affected area are also affected. The phalanx is cut off only in neglected cases.
With the formation of metastases, the effectiveness of treatment is dramatically reduced. The patient may additionally be given radiation or chemical therapy. Sometimes lymph nodes are removed.
When evaluating the prospects for the treatment of nail melanomaan important role is played by the stage of detection of the disease. Even if the patient has recovered, it is necessary to monitor the state of health all the time. There is a high risk of recurrence of the disease. Sometimes even a few years later the disease returns.
Five-year survival in the presence of a tumor in percent is expressed as follows:
Low survival at the last stages is caused by the appearance of metastases, which can occur not only in the affected fingers, but also in other parts of the body.
To avoid complex and lengthy treatment withnail melanoma, it is necessary to adhere to preventive measures. It is necessary to limit stay under the influence of direct sunlight, as well as to avoid harmful habits such as alcohol consumption and smoking of tobacco products. If you suspect a change in the nail plate, you should immediately consult a doctor.</ p>