Korsakov's syndrome, or the amnestic syndrome,is manifested by violations of short-term memory, because of what the patient lost the sense of time. Intellectual abilities do not decrease. The cause of the disorder is the damage to the posterior part of the hypothalamus and the surrounding structures, sometimes bilateral damage to the hippocampus can occur.
This syndrome was first considered by the Russianpsychiatrist S.S. Korsakov. In the late nineteenth century, the term "Korsakov's syndrome" was used to describe a number of disorders having the same symptoms. At present, this term describes memory impairment, learning ability, and, these two symptoms should be much more pronounced than other manifestations of the disease.
The term "syndrome" is also commonWernicke-Korsakov. "In 1881, Wernicke described an acute neurological syndrome, which can cause problems with short-term memory, which is manifested by acute impairment of consciousness, memory loss, orientation, and other symptoms.These disorders are of an organic nature: in the brain of such patients formed foci of bleeding in the area of the third and fourth cerebral ventricles.At present it is known that in both syndromes the same damage to the gray matter of the brain takes place.
As already mentioned, the main manifestation of the syndromeKorsakov is a violation of short-term memory. Usually patients manage to remember those events that occurred a few seconds ago, but after a few minutes or more everything that happened to them is forgotten. Numerous memory tests show that the patient can show good results only for a few seconds, after ten minutes, memory impairments can be observed. Not always such violations can depend on the patient's inability to remember. Usually problems arise with the reproduction of the information received, the patient feels some kind of hindrance, which does not allow him to remember normally what he is being asked for. Korsakov's syndrome because of the memory disorders described above leads to disorientation in time.
In case of serious memory disturbances, the restmental abilities of the patient are kept at the same level. Often such people can well maintain a conversation with a doctor, solve everyday problems. Nevertheless, there are violations in the emotional sphere (dulling). Patients are also experiencing problems with the performance of actions that require them to volitional efforts.</ p>