General urine analysis. How to take and what is the norm?

One of the most frequently conducted medicalresearch - a general analysis of urine. This is explained by the simplicity of delivery and implementation, minimal financial costs and time of execution, but high informativeness. This analysis helps to suspect many diseases, so it is widely used in preventive examinations.

He is on the list of studies thatit is necessary to carry out all patients, regardless of the diagnosis. Mandatory general urine analysis is used to diagnose diseases of the urinary system.

However, for the study to be informative,the material for it must be collected correctly. If the patient is assigned a general urine test, how to take it, it is necessary to check with the doctor or in the selected laboratory. General recommendations are as follows:

  • It is necessary to buy a sterile jar in the pharmacy or to wash and boil the used container well;
  • before the collection should be carefully washed by the genitals, it is desirable for women to insert a cotton swab in the vagina and spread the labia;
  • the morning urine is collected in the container (medium portion);
  • It takes an hour to deliver the material to the laboratory.

The urine of his patients was studied by Hippocrates. What are its indicators are exploring today? Usually the result form can be collected on the same day in the evening, the material is delivered to the laboratory from 8 to 10 am. If the analysis of urine is general, the norm provides for the following indicators:

  • salt - no;
  • slime - no;
  • epithelium - up to 11 in the field of view;
  • transparency is complete;
  • cylinders - no;
  • erythrocytes - up to 5 in the sp.
  • reaction - from slightly alkaline to slightly acidic;
  • leukocytes - up to 7 in sp.
  • bacteria, fungi, parasites - absent;
  • sugar - no;
  • protein is absent;
  • specific weight - from 1019;
  • color - shades of yellow.

The norms and the list of indicators may vary depending on the laboratory chosen. It is enough to collect 100 ml of urine.

So, what diseases can tell a commonurine analysis, more precisely, the deviation of its indicators from the norm? The protein rises with inflammation in the urinary tract, fever, heart failure, cancer, wrinkling of the kidneys, glomerulonephritis, renal dysfunction in diabetes mellitus, and when eating meat in large quantities.

The number of leukocytes increases withinflammatory processes in the urinary organs. This is typical for urethritis, prostatitis, cystitis, urolithiasis, pyelonephritis. With insufficient quality genitals toilet, leukocytes in the urine of women can get from the genitals.

The presence of bacteria in the urine is a symptominflammation in one or more parts of the urinary system. When they are detected, it is necessary to sow to identify the pathogen, determine its quantity and the preparation to which it is sensitive. However, it must be borne in mind that bacteria can get from the genitals with their poor-quality toilet.

The presence of mucus and cells of the flat epithelium is of special importance for the diagnosis. Salts are found with urolithiasis. Cylinders appear in nephrologic diseases.

Erythrocytes exceed the normal values ​​in the urinewith glomerulonephritis, kidney trauma, tumors, stones and infections in the urinary system. They also appear when poisoning with poisonous fungi, snake venom, aniline derivatives, benzene. An increased number of erythrocytes is found in anticoagulant therapy, thrombocytopathy, thrombocytopenia, arterial hypertension.

So, a general urine test helps to identifymany diseases. However, it is most often used to diagnose urological pathologies. This study is simple, informative, inexpensive and very fast.

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