Brucellosis: symptoms, etiology, pathogenesis

Brucellosis is an acute chronic diseaseall kinds of agricultural and wild mammals, which is characterized by abortions, endometritis, bursitis orchitis, hygromas and arthritis. Brucellosis also affects people.

Symptoms of brucellosis in humans were first describedAncient Greek physician - Hippocrates. Brucellosis in animals is observed in most countries of the world. This disease causes significant economic losses in agriculture, which is mainly due to a violation of the reproductive capacity of animals, breeding work, prolonged quarantine, as well as the complexity of carrying out a variety of veterinary and economic measures to eliminate brucellosis.

Brucellosis of animals

The most susceptible to brucellosis arelarge and small cattle (cows, bulls, heifers, oxen, calves, goats, sheep, etc.), as well as reindeer and pigs. Less sensitive are carnivores, horses, camels. From wild animals wild boars, antelopes, moose, foxes, rodents are most often affected. Sick animals are the source of spread of the pathogen, especially during the period of abortion, during this period brucella in large numbers are allocated with embryos and fruit waters, as well as secretions from the genitals, with faeces and urine.

Brucellosis: symptoms and pathogenesis

The development of brucellosis infection is divided into three stages: primary latency, generalization of the process and secondary latency.

The phase of regional infection is characterized bythe penetration of the pathogen into the human or animal body, its multiplication in regional lymph nodes with subsequent entry through the lymph and blood into the parenchymal organs. Therefore, in patients with a diagnosis of brucellosis, symptoms of the disease are not yet observed in this period, but the infected macroorganism is a bacterial carrier and can secrete brucella with feces and urine. Accumulation of specific antibodies has not yet reached the maximum diagnostic level, so serological tests produce negative reactions during this period.

Various adverse conditions (stress, periodpregnancy) contribute to the development of the generalization phase of the process. This period is characterized by the generalization of the pathological process, bacteremia, the formation of specific brucellosis granulomas in the affected tissues and organs, with the development of characteristic clinical signs of brucellosis.

Pathogen in the body is alimentarypathway, as well as infection can occur through mucous membranes, conjunctiva, and also through the skin. With the penetration and reproduction of brucellae in the endometrium, inflammatory processes develop that lead to a disturbance in the nutrition of the embryo, its death and abortion. Thus, in patients with a diagnosis of brucellosis, the symptoms of the disease can manifest themselves as necrotic phenomena developing in various tissues and organs, causing orchids, abscesses and bursitis. During this period it is possible to distinguish the Brucella cultures in the parenchyma organs, and also to identify specific serum antibodies.

Secondary latency. This phase is characterized by clinical recovery of the patient, a long bacteriocarrier and a pronounced allergic reorganization of the body.

Brucellosis: symptoms and etiology in humans

Most often brucellosis is recorded in humans,which directly serve animals (veterinarians, farm staff, etc.). In most cases, infection occurs through the nasal mucosa and the oral cavity, the skin, and also through the digestive canal when consumed by the causative agent of milk products. Patients are observed fever, chills, the appearance on the skin of specific formations. Patients complain of migraine, myalgia, pain in the joints. Men register orchitis, epididymitis, in women - mastitis, oophoritis, abortion.

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