What is political development and how is it classified

Political development is an increasethe ability of the political system to adapt to new social goals, to create new institutions that provide more effective communication between government and the public.

Previously, the problems of political developmentRepresentatives of the sociological branch were engaged in, and it was called "sociology of development". As for the methodological foundations, they were laid by F.Tennis, M. Weber and T. Parsons. According to this direction, traditional and modern types of societies were distinguished. In the structure of the first species, the main role is played by tradition and habit, therefore it is characterized by relative stability. In modern society, the main structural element is a person, not a group: he chooses his place of work and residence, and the sphere of activity is outside the family.

Political development is directly related to the analysispolitical process from its global aspect. This concept appeared in scientific use in the twentieth century, in the second half, and was intended to reflect the dynamics of political life and its main changes.

There are certain criteria for this concept, which Pai singled out (USA). They sound like this:

  1. Structural differentiation.
  2. Increase in the systemic ability to mobilize and survive.
  3. Political development aimed at establishing equal rights of people's participation in state activities.

The principles of this concept differ from the featuressocial and economic development. In particular, policy development is irreversible and has its own criteria. It is also characteristic that this process can not be the same in different systems.

Let us note that political development is not alwaysvaries synchronously. Sometimes the tendency towards equality leads to a decrease in the efficiency of the system. Very often, ensuring the proper level of economic development leads to limited political representation and the expression of the interests of the group.

Political development and modernization are twointerrelated concepts. So, modernization is understood as a set of processes on the basis of which new political requirements develop as an opportunity to maintain regular changes. This is due to the development of many similar qualities that are inherent in modern systems and are integral conditions for modernization.

Political modernization is characterized by several evolutionary stages:

  1. The concept originated in the 50's and 60'syears of the 20th century. Its main directions at that time were the following: democratization of the political system on the basis of the Western pattern, active mutual work between developed and developing countries.
  2. The second half of the sixties, whichcharacterized by the definition of the main shortcomings of initial research in the field of political modernization. Attempts to correct these errors led to the development of a qualitatively different understanding of the essence of this process.
  3. The late seventies of the twentieth century, the concept ofturned into a general model of the development of civilization, the basis of which was covered in describing the transition from traditional features of society to modern ones. At that time, the theory of modernization was developed by Almond, Verba and Pai.

Political development differs from political modernization in that:

  1. The second concept is applicable to states that are in the stage of transition to an industrial and postindustrial society.
  2. Modernization is directly related to the concepts of social mobilization and political participation, and not to the formation of political institutions.
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